Tegretol Cr

posted on 27 Aug 2012 07:55 by tegretolcre
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- tate forms at the interface. It is essential that the serum have a greater density than the antigen, and the serum is often used undiluted, or in the case of more potent serums, the appropriate concentration may be reached by using normal Tegretol Cr serum as a diluent. A serum-saline control should be included. If economy of reagents is necessary, the ring test may be per- formed in small capillary tubing. The ring test is a qualitative or roughly quantitative procedure and thus has limited value for precise work. It does have the advantages that smaller amounts of material are required and that inhibition due to excess antigen is less likely, since the reactants can diffuse into each other. It has considerable value for the detection of qualitative (type or group) differences among different strains of the same species and has been used for this purpose with organisms like the streptococci and pneumococci. Optimal proportions. If a precipitin test is set up as described for ''Antigen dilution" and the tubes examined at frequent intervals, one tube will usually be observed to precipitate before the others. This is called the point of optimal proportions. The ratio (dilution of antigen/ dilution of antiserum) is called the optimal ratio, and should the anti- serum dilution be changed, it usually requires a proportional dilution of the antigen to give the most rapid precipitation. The optimal-proportions method, then, is a way of measuring the velocity of the precipitin reaction. When antigen is diluted and serum held constant, the test is referred to as the ''alpha procedure"; con- 212 MANUAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS versely, in the ''beta procedure," the serum is diluted while antigen is held constant. A practical application of the optimal-proportions method and one which will serve to illustrate general procedure for optimal-proportions determinations is the Ramon flocculation test (beta method) used for toxins and toxoids. To a series of test tubes (12 by 75 mm) add increasing amounts of anti- toxin as shown in Table 23. This is ordinarily done with a 0.2-ml pipet cahbrated in 0.001 ml. Then Tegretol Cr to each tube is added 2 ml of Tegretol Cr the toxin or toxoid. The tubes are shaken, placed in Tegretol Cr a water bath at 50C, and observed continuously. The tubes in which flocculation is going to appear will first become cloudy. Record the time at Tegretol Cr which discrete floccules are first seen in one of the tubes. This tube represents the optimal ratio between the particular batches of antitoxin and toxin used. In Table 23, this ratio is represented by tube 6. If a more precise end point is desired, the titration may be repeated, using smaller increments Table 23. Beta Procedure for Optimal Proportions Using Diphtheria Toxin and Antitoxin (Ramon Flocculation) Tube Antitoxin, Toxin, Time of flocculation, No. ml ml min 1 0.030 2 2 0.035 2 3 0.040 2 4
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